Image database: Oranges infested with scale

Database of 125 images of oranges cv. ‘Navel’ presenting infestation by scale. A reference to the acquisition system can be found in:

  • Vidal A, Talens P, Prats-Montalbán JM, Cubero S, Albert F, Blasco J (2013) In-line estimation of the standard colour index of citrus fruits using a computer vision system developed for a mobile platform. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(12), 3412-3419. DOI: 10.1007/s11947-012-1015-2.
  • Cubero S, Diago MP, Blasco J, Tardaguila J, Millán B, Aleixos N (2014) A new method for pedicel/peduncle detection and size assessment of grapevine berries and other fruits by image analysis. Biosystems Engineering. Special Issue on Image Processing in Agriculture, 117, 62-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2013.06.007.

The image acquisition system was composed of a digital camera (Canon EOS 550D) used to acquire high quality images with a size of 2592 x 1728 pixels and a resolution of 0.06 mm/pixel. However, the images for download in the database have been reduced to a size of 1200 x 800 pixels to reduce storage requirements, if you want to download the original images just send us a message using the form. The images were taken by placing each sample inside an inspection chamber in which contained the camera and the lighting system. The camera was placed at a distance of 20 cm from the samples. Illumination was achieved using four lamps that contained two fluorescent tubes each (Osram Biolux L18W/965, 6500 K). The angle between the axis of the lens and the sources of illumination was of approximately 45º since the diffuse reflection responsible for the colour occurs at 45º from the incident light. However, the samples have a curved shape that can still produce bright spots affecting the colour measurements. To minimise the impact of these specular reflections, the interior sides of the inspection chamber were coated by anti-reflective material and cross polarisation was used by placing polarising filters in front of the lamps and in the camera lenses. The fluorescent tubes were powered using high frequency electronic ballast to avoid the flickering effect of the alternate current and produce a more stable light.

The application Canon EOS utility was used to capture the images of the fruit. A standardised colour checker (ColorChecker SG Chart, X-Rite Inc, USA) was used to acquire colour references. Images of fruit were stored in JPG format due to internet limitations but images of colour checker were captured in both JPG and RAW (CR2) format to check the quality loss due to JPG compression. The results of the analysis of the colour patches in different colour spaces were completely the same with a correlation R2 higher than 99.9%


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